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 Signs & Symptoms

Tongue & Lip Ties - Signs & Symptoms

Tongue tie in infant
Lip tie in infant


1. Bartick MC, Schwarz EB, Green BD, et al. Suboptimal breastfeeding in the United States: Maternal and pediatric health outcomes and costs. Matern Child Nutr. 2017;13(1):e12366. doi:10.1111/mcn.12366

2. Brahm P, Valdés V. Benefits of breastfeeding and risks associated with not breastfeeding. Rev Chil Pediatr. 2017;88(1):15-21.

3. Victora CG, Bahl R, Barros AJ, et al. Breastfeeding in the 21st century: epidemiology, mechanisms, and lifelong effect. Lancet. 2016;387(10017):475-490. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(15)01024-7

4. Ballard JL, Auer CE, Khoury JC. Ankyloglossia: assessment, incidence, and effect of frenuloplasty on the breastfeeding dyad. Pediatrics. 2002;110(5):e63. doi:10.1542/peds.110.5.e63

5. Berry J, Griffiths M, Westcott C. A double-blind, randomized, controlled trial of tongue-tie division and its immediate effect on breastfeeding. Breastfeed Med. 2012;7(3):189-193. doi:10.1089/bfm.2011.0030

6. Benoiton L, Morgan M, Baguley K. Management of posterior ankyloglossia and upper lip ties in a tertiary otolaryngology outpatient clinic. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2016;88:13-16. doi:10.1016/j.ijporl.2016.06.037

7. Patel PS, Wu DB, Schwartz Z, Rosenfeld RM. Upper lip frenotomy for neonatal breastfeeding problems. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2019;124:190-192. doi:10.1016/j.ijporl.2019.06.008.

8. Wiessinger D, Miller M. Breastfeeding Difficulties as a Result of Tight Lingual and Labial Frena: A Case Report. J Hum Lact. 1995;11(4):313-316. doi:10.1177/089033449501100419.

9. Ito Y, Shimizu T, Nakamura T, Takatama C. Effectiveness of tongue-tie division for speech disorder in children. Pediatr Int. 2015;57(2):222-226. doi:10.1111/ped.12474

10. Messner AH, Lalakea ML. The effect of ankyloglossia on speech in children. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2002;127(6):539-545. doi:10.1067/mhn.2002.129731

11. Baxter R, Merkel-Walsh R, Baxter BS, Lashley A, Rendell NR. Functional Improvements of Speech, Feeding, and Sleep After Lingual Frenectomy Tongue-Tie Release: A Prospective Cohort Study. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2020;59(9-10):885-892. doi:10.1177/0009922820928055

12. Govardhan C, Murdock J, Norouz-Knutsen L, Valcu-Pinkerton S, Zaghi S. Lingual and Maxillary Labial Frenuloplasty with Myofunctional Therapy as a Treatment for Mouth Breathing and Snoring. Case Rep Otolaryngol. 2019;2019:3408053. doi:10.1155/2019/3408053

13. Chen X, Xia B, Ge L. Effects of breast-feeding duration, bottle-feeding duration and non-nutritive sucking habits on the occlusal characteristics of primary dentition. BMC Pediatr. 2015;15:46. doi:10.1186/s12887-015-0364-1

14. Meenakshi S, Jagannathan N. Assessment of lingual frenulum lengths in skeletal malocclusion. J Clin Diagn Res. 2014;8(3):202-204. doi:10.7860/JCDR/2014/7079.4162

15. Vaz AC, Bai PM. Lingual frenulum and malocclusion: An overlooked tissue or a minor issue. Indian J Dent Res. 2015;26(5):488-492. doi:10.4103/0970-9290.172044

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